Gutian Conference Memorial: Pack up and set out again




  One Hundred Party History Lessons | Gutian Conference Memorial: Pack up and set out again

  Chronic illness endangers survival

  "It is hard to see the sky in Chixian County at night, the hundred year old monster dance is dancing, and the people are not reunited." Old China was poor and weak, with internal and external problems. The CPC rose up to fight, but the bitter lesson of the failure of the Great Revolution thoroughly alerted the Communists to the need to use "armed revolution" to fight against "armed counter revolution", and fully understood the truth that "power comes out of the barrel of a gun". Mao Zedong launched the Autumn Harvest Uprising and ignited the spark of the armed seizure of political power.

  "The army is called the Workers' and Peasants' Revolution, and its banner is the sickle and axe." How to transform an armed force of workers and peasants into a new type of people's army has become a major practical issue. At the beginning of the Autumn Harvest Uprising, Qiu Guoxuan's regiment, a temporarily incorporated Guizhou army, suddenly turned traitor and turned against the enemy when the war began. In April 1928, Zhu De and Chen Yi led their troops to meet Mao Zedong in Jinggangshan, creating the Fourth Army of the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army. Later, a former committee headed by Mao Zedong was established to govern the Military Commission of the Fourth Red Army and the Hunan Jiangxi Border Special Committee, and to be responsible for leading the work of the Fourth Red Army and local Party organizations. As the Fourth Red Army mainly came from peasants, petty bourgeoisie, officers and prisoners of the old army uprisings, and so on, problems such as inequality between officers and soldiers, mistreatment of prisoners, warlord style, and laxity of people's minds continued to arise, and ideas such as simple military views, extreme democratization, and roving rebels became increasingly prominent. More seriously, in July 1928, when Zhu De and Chen Yi led their troops to attack southern Hunan, the 29th Regiment, which was dominated by farmers in Yizhang, Hunan Province, almost broke up because it was unaccustomed to the hard struggle life and eager to love home.

  In January 1929, the main force of the Red Army of Zhu and Mao left Jinggangshan and fought thousands of miles, creating a revolutionary base in southern Jiangxi and western Fujian. At the time of the rising revolutionary situation, an argument broke out quietly in the Fourth Red Army. After going down the mountain, the leadership of the Front Committee of the Fourth Red Army focused on the army and once decided to "suspend the work of the Military Commission". With the continuous expansion of the base area, the local tasks of the former committee became heavier, so a temporary military commission was established, with Liu Angong, who had returned to the Soviet Union shortly after his stay, as the secretary. Liu Angong immediately held a meeting. The military commission under the former committee actually limited the power and scope of work of the higher party committee, and decided that the former committee would only discuss action issues and not deal with other matters. In this way, there was a heated debate about "whether to set up a military commission", the essence of which was "who leads and listens to who commands the Fourth Red Army". Subsequently, the Fourth Red Army witnessed more and more irregularities, such as reports to the Central Committee were submitted without the signature and approval of the Secretary of the Front Committee, and Mao Zedong was not notified to participate in the war conference. In late June, at the Seventh National Congress of the Communist Party of the Fourth Red Army held in Longyan, a call was made for "everyone to make efforts to debate". As a result, Mao Zedong's correct opinion was rejected and the former party secretary was defeated. At the beginning of August, Chen Yi went to Shanghai to report to the CPC Central Committee. During this period, erroneous ideas such as extreme democratization within the Fourth Red Army were rampant, and the Front Committee was formed into a "democratic society", which often did not make a decision but was difficult to implement. In late September, the Eighth National Congress of the Communist Party of the Fourth Red Army held in Shanghang for three days. All kinds of chaos show that the future of the Fourth Red Army is worrying. In the military operations of attacking Central Fujian in August and Dongjiang in October, the Fourth Red Army suffered heavy losses.

  In October 1929, Chen Yi brought back the Instruction Letter from the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China to the Front Committee of the Fourth Army of the Red Army from Shanghai. The instruction letter affirmed Mao Zedong's correct opinion. He resumed his post as former secretary. From December 28 to 29, 1929, the Ninth National Congress of the Fourth Red Army Party was held in the Liao Clan Ancestral Hall, Gutian Village, Shanghang, Fujian Province. At the meeting, the Resolution of the Ninth Congress of the Fourth Red Army of the CPC was unanimously passed, which is the resolution of the Gutian Conference that will be forever recorded in history.

  Problem oriented Cursive Medicine

  The Gutian Meeting Resolution personally drafted by Mao Zedong is composed of eight parts, namely, the correction of erroneous ideas within the Party, the organization of the Party, the education within the Party, the propaganda work of the Red Army, the political training of soldiers, the abolition of corporal punishment, the preferential treatment of wounded and sick soldiers, and the relationship between the military system and the political system of the Red Army. To some extent, the Gutian Conference was started by controversy and forced by problems. There are many problems, but the most urgent one is that, as Mao Zedong said, "We feel that the problem of proletarian ideological leadership is a very important one." Without a military led by lofty beliefs, it is unreliable and unstable. The root of this natural defect is "no political soul". Chronic diseases cannot be eliminated without strong medicine. The people of the CPC, represented by Mao Zedong, have the courage to face up to contradictions and problems, and have the courage to completely break with various old military habits that are contrary to the nature and purpose of the Party. It is not difficult to understand that the Gutian Meeting Resolution is voluminous and profound, with 30000 words, but the most historic part is the first part, "Correcting the incorrect tendency of the non proletarian consciousness within the Party". Later, it was included in the first volume of Selected Works of Mao Zedong, with the title of "Correcting Wrong Thoughts within the Party".

  The Resolution of the Gutian Conference comprehensively and systematically summarized the basic experience and lessons of Party building in the early days of the founding of the Red Army, and seriously criticized the wrong tendencies of extreme democratization, unorganized views, individualism, etc, It pointed out: "This is a great obstacle to the implementation of the correct line of the Party. If it is not completely corrected, the task given to the Fourth Army by the great revolutionary struggle of China will inevitably not be shouldered." The resolution of the Gutian Conference mainly answered two major questions: first, how to start from strengthening the ideological construction of the Party and build the party with farmers as the main component into a proletarian party; Second, how to build a new type of people's army with peasants as the main component into a proletarian army. Its central idea is to build the Party ideologically and build the army politically. The resolution of the Gutian Conference put forward the basic idea of party building in the people's army for the first time in a relatively complete way, which is a programmatic document of party building, mainly embodied in upholding the party's absolute leadership over the army and strengthening the party's political, ideological, organizational, system, style and discipline building.

  The Resolution of the Gutian Conference stipulates the nature and tasks of the Red Army, pointing out that "the Red Army is an armed group that carries out revolutionary political tasks". "In addition to fighting to eliminate the enemy's military forces, it also undertakes such important tasks as publicizing the masses, organizing the masses, arming the masses, helping the masses establish revolutionary power and even establishing the Communist Party organization.". He affirmed the Party's principle of leadership over the Red Army, emphasized the need to build the Party ideologically and politically, and criticized such erroneous tendencies as extreme democratization and unorganized views. It clarifies the relationship between military and politics, points out that "military is only one of the tools to accomplish political tasks", and criticizes such simple military views as "military is good, politics will be good". It emphasizes that the education of Marxism and the correct line of the Party should be carried out to improve the political level within the Party in terms of education, so as to make Party members' thoughts and life within the Party politicized and scientific. It has established the principles of the Red Army in dealing with intra military and civil military relations and in disintegrating the enemy, and reaffirmed that it must abide by the three major disciplines and the six points for attention and adhere to military civilian unity. It stipulates the task of the Red Army's propaganda work, "to expand political influence and win over the masses". This paper discusses the style and methods of the political work of the Red Army, which should "use Marxist Leninist methods to analyze the political situation and evaluate class forces, instead of subjectivist analysis and evaluation" and "intra party criticism should prevent subjective arbitrariness and vulgarization of criticism".

  The resolution of the Gutian Conference creatively answered a series of fundamental and directional major questions about the building of the Party and the army, established the "military spirit" of "the absolute leadership of the Party over the army", clarified "for whom and whom to rely, where to come from and where to go", thoroughly drew the line between the Red Army and the old army, provided ideological resources for the revolutionary parties to lead the armed forces, build the army and control the war, and accumulated valuable experience, It has laid a political foundation and created a new realm.

  Implementation is the most important

  Marx's epitaph reads: "Philosophers only explain the world in different ways, but the problem is to change the world." The resolution of the Gutian Conference is problem oriented and result oriented. When analyzing erroneous ideas, it does not discuss them in general terms, but always gives a full account of their manifestations, sources and methods of correction. It not only answers and solves a series of major principled problems in building the Party and the army, but also makes these principles concrete, detailed and standardized, with both direction and path; Both ideological guidance and operational plan; It is a distinctive feature of the Gutian Meeting Resolution that it has both institutional support and disciplinary constraints.

  After the Gutian Conference Resolution established important principles such as "building the Party through ideology and building the military through politics", it immediately put forward detailed and detailed implementation rules, so that abstract principles can be quickly translated into specific practices, and the principle and specificity can be integrated, which can be regarded as a model for system construction. For example, in terms of recruiting Party members, five specific conditions have been stipulated; In terms of strengthening the organizational concept of Party members and improving the enthusiasm of Party members to participate in branch meetings, seven provisions have been made; In terms of strengthening the education of Party members, 18 specific methods are proposed; There are 10 regulations on how political commissioners can teach politics well; In terms of establishing the party's democratic centralism and correcting the unorganized views, six requirements were put forward; In terms of publicizing and organizing the masses, eight specific items have been stipulated.

  The Resolution of Gutian Conference stipulates that "once a resolution is reached, it must be resolutely implemented", which is the basic premise to ensure the implementation of the Party's system. Before the Gutian Conference, lax discipline within the Party troubled the Fourth Red Army. In order to effectively enforce discipline, the Gutian Meeting Resolution has formulated a series of specific measures. First of all, it is important to "politicize and scientize the Party members' thoughts and inner Party life", and to take inner Party political life seriously. Clarify that "the minority is subordinate to the majority", require healthy intra party criticism, and take criticism and self-criticism as an important way of intra party life. Criticism does not attack individuals. It is intended to point out political and organizational mistakes and oppose subjectivism and vulgarization. There are differences between internal and external criticism occasions. Secondly, we should emphasize the "strict implementation of democratic life under centralized guidance" and resolutely correct the chaos of extreme democratization. Thirdly, it emphasizes that "discipline should be strictly enforced and the perfunctory phenomenon of discipline should be abolished".

  The "Gutian Conference Resolution" explored the political life within the Party and the construction of Party discipline in the Fourth Red Army. It effectively overcame many problems such as weak organizational leadership, loose organizational relations, low quality organizational members, vulgarized organizational life, and lax organizational discipline, so that the Party organization really became the "center of leadership", and its cohesion and combat effectiveness continued to increase; So that the spirit of Gutian Conference can be deeply rooted in the hearts of the people and be effective; So that the Fourth Red Army can be reborn and achieve nirvana.

  History chose Gutian, and Gutian made history. Starting from Gutian, the Party led the people's army to develop and grow in the struggle. The Long March, the War of Resistance, the victory of the War of Liberation, and the establishment of a new China.

  The officers and men of the three armed forces never forget their original intentions, remember their mission, reorganize their packs and set out again, starting a new journey of building a strong military. The red gene of "building the party through ideology and building the military through politics" of Gutian Conference will surely continue to radiate new era light.